Thirty Years War (1618-1648) which was considered to be the most destructive in European History was the time of disaster and grief not only for Berlin and Germany but for the whole Europe.
But to continue in the chronological order we should also mention that in 1307 both towns created a union to secure their rights against the margrave. Margrave was a title of the Duke of Brandenburg. Do you see something in common?
Mark and Margrave? They have similar origin. We mentioned it in Berlin History.
The dynasty of Margraves were Askanier and ruled till 1320. Askanier is a family name of Brandenburg Dukes.
After the last one of this family died the Mark Brandenburg was given to dynasty of Wittelsbacher. From 1411 the dynasty of Hohenzollern started their ruling period in Berlin and Brandenburg lasting till 1918.
With time of Hohenzollern Berlin-Coelln lost more and more its independence and finally became residence town for Hohenzollern in 1451.
Berlin and Coelln were finally united to a single community under the name of Berlin in 1432.
In 1539 reformation in Mark Brandenburg took place: for the first time the elector Joachim II took communion according to Lutheran rites. The community council and citizens of Berlin decided to follow this later in a public ceremony.
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So, it should be emphasized again that a very important impact on the history of Germany and Berlin had the Thirty Years War.
The Thirty Years War from 1618 till 1648 starting in Prague had like in the majority of Northern German settlements its terrible results: population dropped down by up to 50%. At the end of that war which was held to find out the superior or using modern terminology-Super Power in Central Europe and was between Hispanic-Austrian Habsburger dynasty on one hand and Sweden and France on the other hand (additionally there were their allied as General States of the Netherlands, Saxonia, Bavaria, Denmark etc.) Central Europe was destroyed, people were dead or hidden in forests and swamps to survive.
It took generations to balance losses and that time was deeply embossed in the memory of people.
Another very important Berlin Fact is that in 1685 the Edict of Potsdam was published inviting French Hugenottes (protestants) to settle in Mark Brandenburg.Several thousands came and about 6,000 were settling in Berlin where for sometime up to 20% of the population were French. And today you will still find a lot of French family names and topographic names in Berlin. French influence in Berlin culture and all sides of city life was considerable.
Issues of migration were also very important for Berlin. Berlin always new how to handle such issues. You can read more about other periods in Berlin History in our other pages related to Berlin History.